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  • order Erastin br Methods br Results From to median years of

    2018-11-05


    Methods
    Results From 1980 to 2013, median years of overall education across all countries increased from 6.2 to 10.3 years amongst young men and from 5.9 to 10.9 years amongst young women 15-24 years of age (Appendix Figs. A1 & 2). During this time, secondary education increased from 2.0 to 4.1 years in young women and from 1.5 to 2.9 years amongst young men. Table 1 shows the cross-sectional associations of years of secondary and primary education and of overall years of education with each health outcome in 2010, adjusted for GDP and country income status. These associations are illustrated graphically for secondary education in Fig. 1 for adolescent fertility, mortality amongst 15-19 year old males and HIV prevalence in females (see Appendix Fig A3-9 for other outcomes). After adjusting for primary education, each additional year of secondary education was associated with a 16.8% reduction in adolescent fertility rate, 5.9-7.4% reduction in male mortality, 11.7-15.2% reduction in female mortality and 15.7% and 25.0% reductions in male and female HIV prevalence respectively. In each of these models, years of primary education was not significantly associated with adolescent fertility or mortality in either sex or with male HIV prevalence. Findings from analyses using WHO mortality data were similar (Appendix Table A1). Longitudinal country-level models for the effects of secondary education on health outcomes are shown in Table 2 with models for overall education in Table 3.
    Discussion This evidence was consistent across three priority health outcomes and two educational datasets studied here, and across a range of methods. Our findings complement existing individual-level evidence for education as a potential tool to improve order Erastin health, (Baker et al., 2011; Behrman, 2015; Masters, Link, & Phelan, 2015; Miyamoto & Chevalier, 2010; Montez & Friedman, 2015) and show that this association appeared to be consistent across a range of country income and levels of national development. Our findings suggest that country-level investments in secondary education are likely to result in major health dividends for the most productive parts of the population and the parents of the next generation. Mean years of secondary education increased by approximately 60% globally between 1980 and 2010, with the greatest growth in upper middle income countries who have therefore reaped the greatest health benefits. Target 4.1 of the SDGs is that all young people complete secondary education by 2030, (Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, 2014) driven largely by economic benefit to countries (Barro, 2013). Investment in secondary education will also bring a major health benefit for low and lower-middle income countries who meet this target.
    Funding
    Introduction
    Methods
    Results The distribution of the sample by age and ethnicity and the prevalence of morbid obesity are presented in Table 1. The overall prevalence of morbid obesity in men was 1.7% in the UK and 4.8% in the US. For women the figures were 3.7% and 9.6% respectively. Morbid obesity was high in ‘black’ women but less so in men, with 16.0% of non-Hispanic black women in the US and 5.4% of ‘black’ women in the UK having morbid obesity. The age-standardised prevalence of morbid obesity according to income and education category is presented for English and US participants in Fig. 1 and Tables 2 and 3 for men and women respectively. Fig. 1 reveals consistent gradients in the distribution of morbid obesity according to income and education in both men and women in England. In English men, the prevalence of morbid obesity was 1.3% in the highest category of income and 2.3% in the lowest; in English women, the equivalent figures were 2.0% and 5.0%. English men in the highest category of educational qualification had a prevalence of morbid obesity of 0.9% compared with 2.4% in the lowest category; in women, the equivalent figures were 2.2% and 4.9%.