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  • In addition to it we

    2024-04-23

    In addition to it, we also showed that glycine increases miR-301a expression which directly binds to PTEN 3′UTR target sites [13]. Glycine confers neuroprotection through microRNA-301a/PTEN signaling in rats cortical neurons in oxygen deprivation model [13]. Substantial studies indicate that inhibiting PTEN confers neuroprotection [10,[14], [15], [16]] in ischemia-reperfusion injury and traumatic 11302 injury [17,18]. Whether PTEN inhibition have protective role in ICH-induced brain injury were largely unknown.
    Materials and methods
    Results
    Discussion Previous studies show that glycine confers protection against neuronal injuries both in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions [29,30]. Clinical trial has shown that glycine treatment improves outcome of ischemic stroke patients [8]. In addition to this, glycine plays important roles on anti-inflammatory effects in different injuries, such as peripheral inflammation, endothelial inflammation, postoperative inflammatory ileus and other inflammatory disease [31]. However, there is no report about the relationship between glycine and ICH. For the first time, we show that glycine confers neuroprotection through PTEN/Akt signal pathway after experimental ICH. Our previous study reports that the neuroprotective effect of glycine is mediated by the enhancement of miR-301a expression and contribute to PTEN inhibition in oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neuronal injury [13]. In this study, it showed that PTEN was up-regulated after ICH in early times, meanwhile, AKT was inactivated. When administrated with glycine in ICH rats, the protein level of PTEN was decreased and AKT was activated. Since Akt plays a pivotal role in promoting cell survival. It suggests that PTEN inhibition by glycine promotes Akt activation after experimental ICH. Chen Y suggest that administration of a PTEN inhibitor BPV(pic) attenuates early brain injury via modulating AMPA receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats [18]. Also, Hasegawa Y demonstrated that sodium orthovanadate (SOV) attenuated SAH-induced blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption through PTEN phosphorylation [17]. Our results show that PTEN inhibition by glycine reduced Evans blue dye leakage after ICH, which consistent with the previous studies. Glycine as the simplest non-essential amino acid and a component of the human body, it is safer and less side-effect than other PTEN inhibitors (pic, SOV) in the treatment of ICH. Since glycine have low blood-brain barrier permeability, which limit the clinical application. Hence, next we search to find a strategy that utilizes the peptide's membrane permeability to exert therapeutic effect of glycine. ICH not only causes primary brain injury through direct mechanical effects of the hemorrhage, but also leads to secondary injury which further aggravate brain injury. The local inflammatory and the release of clot components cause secondary injury including peri-hematoma tissue damage and breakdown of the blood–brain barrier [1]. A growing body of evidence suggests that such secondary processes contribute to neurological deterioration after ICH. Studies show that PTEN is involved in regulating inflammation in different pathological conditions, such as tumor immunity [32], intestinal inflammation [33], and also involved in regulating inflammation following coronary microembolization [34]. Based on the studies, we can suspect that PTEN inhibition has the property of controlling inflammation after ICH in some ways, which probably can attenuate the secondary injury after ICH. Therefore, PTEN inhibition may become a new target for alleviating ICH-induced inflammation injury.
    Author declaration
    Acknowledgements This work was supported by China Key Project of Basic Research (“973” Project; 2014CB541606), Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC; 81470599) and The Fund of Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science to Q.W. This work was also supported by NSFC (81701291) to J.C.